MUSIC FOR SOLO PIANO 1960–2001
DAAN VANDEWALLE, PIANO
Jardin (1958–97), for Michelle Fillion 13:57
1. poplars 1:50
2. tricycle and fence 2:40
3. coulisse pour Michelle 1:33
4. lunar asparagus, d’après Max Ernst 1:56
5. planted song 1 1:45
6. planted song 2 1:18
7. planted song 3 1:19
8. planted song 4 1:36
9 Songs without Words (1990s) 25:58
9. for Christian Wolff 3:40
10. soprapensiero, for Dominic Gill 2:35
11. for Richard Felciano 2:39
12. for Younhie Kim 1:31
13. for Jon Barlow 3:01
14. for Merril Lynn Taylor 2:09
15. for David Tudor . . . who went on ahead of us 3:24
16. for George Exon 3:12
17. for David Revill 3:47
18. Suite for Piano (1960) 4:45
Graftings (1990–96), for Daan Vandewalle 7:41
19. scion 1:21
20. recitative 1:29
21. scion 1:15
22. scion 1:30
23. grafting & slipwaltz 1:10
24. scion :56
Four Pack Ponies (1996), for the Taylor cousins 10:10
25. Bay 1:37
26. Connemara 2:32
27. Dun 3:21
28. Chestnut dreams 2:40
Basket of Strays 9:46
29. Treble Song (1996) 2:49
30. Soft Saloon Song (1977) 2:34
31. Tearing off: a piece (2001) 1:02
32. Clavichord at 18 (1997) 1:27
33. Un bocado de tango (de los desaparecidos) (1970) :52
34. Octal Waltz (1980) 1:02
DISC 2: 71:07
19 from the Sushibox:
5 Sushiverticals (1996) 8:38
1. for Merce Cunningham 1:07
2. Octet, for David Behrman 1:35
3. for Lou Harrison 1:10
4. for William Colvig 1:47
5. for C. T. Mumma 2:59
3 Perspectives (1966–96), in memoriam Jacqueline Leuzinger 4:09
6. Perspective 1 2:00
7. Perspective 2 :44
8. Perspective 3 1:25
11 Sushihorizontals (1986–96) 16:06
9. for Jackson Mac Low 1:40
10. for Alexis at 22 1:10
11. for Agnes Martin 1:39
12. for James Klosty 1:25
13. for Jonathan at 12 :25
14. Erdös number . . ., for Paul Erdös 2:21
15. for Christopher at 15 (time flies like two arrows) :20
16. for Carolyn Brown 1:23
17. for Bun-Ching Lam 1:43
18. for Anatole Leikin 1:09
19. for Charles Shere 2:51
Sixpac Sonatas (1985–97) 15:41
20. for H. Wiley Hitchcock 1:08
21. for Julia Wilson Jones 2:59
22. for Homer Keller 2:24
23. for David Bernstein 3:42
24. (no dedication) 2:55
25. (no dedication) 2:33
Threesome (1996) 9:50
26. 1 of a Threesome 5:19
27. 2 of a Threesome 2:57
28. 3 of a Threesome 1:34
Eleven Note Pieces & Decimal Passacaglia (1978) 5:39
29. à Luigi Dallapiccola :25
30. à Durand Begault :18
31. à Diane Carlson :35
32. à Graciela Paraskevaídis :34
33. à Padre Mujica :57
34. à Jacques Bekaert :11
35. à Pauline Oliveros 1:09
36. à Eduardo Bértola :17
37. à Linda Burman-Hall :11
38. à Coriún Aharonián :54
39. à Robert Ashley :08
40. Decimal Passacaglia, à Carolyn Cook 2:05
41. Large Size Mograph 1962 8:02
Gordon Mumma’s Music for Solo Piano (1960–2001)
Gordon Mumma is best known for his pioneering role in the development and evolution of electronic and
live-electronic music in works such as Hornpipe (1967) and Pontpoint (1980), and for his legendary
cybersonic performances on horn. The piano has played a significant if underestimated role in his career.
With a few notable exceptions, this collection by pianist Daan Vandewalle marks the first commercial
recordings of Mumma’s music for solo piano composed over more than forty years. It provides an
important new perspective on his work as a composer.
Mumma’s most influential piano teacher was George Exon, with whom he studied at the
Interlochen Music Camp in the early 1950s. Together they explored Béla Bartók’s Mikrokosmos—the
spare textures, irregular rhythms, and pungent dissonances of Bartók’s miniatures echo in Mumma’s piano
music. The keyboard music of Bach and Haydn, of Schoenberg, Webern, Ives, Ernst Krenek, Carl
Ruggles, and Ruth Crawford also shaped his early piano ideal, as did the experience of superb recitalists in
Detroit and Ann Arbor, including Walter Gieseking, Dame Myra Hess, and Glenn Gould. Mumma’s own
performances as a pianist were often in piano ensembles, partnered with Tudor, Cage, Jon Barlow, Toshi
Ichiyanagi, and others. In the 1960s he also toured internationally in a two-piano team with composer-
pianist Robert Ashley in a series entitled “New Music for Pianos.” Several of Mumma’s performances with
Ashley and Tudor have been recorded (see Discography).
The works of the early 1960s were written for the concert hall, but much of the later piano music is
more personal—the solitary dreams of a long musical life. And like dreams it filters memories—of music of
the distant and recent past, of artistic friendships and loved ones living or dead—to create a uniquely
contemporary approach to the piano. In contrast to Mumma’s epic electronic works, his keyboard music is
predominantly poetic in its brevity, concentration, and psychological depth. It is music of high specific
gravity, each piece a microcosm of finely etched ideas that unfold without literal repetition. For Daan
Vandewalle, it is also “music of dialogue” that communicates—both with the listener and within itself—
through its deep concern with sound, phrasing, color, dynamic range, and rhetorical nuance. It demands
much of the pianist, and does not reveal its secrets on first hearing.
The Suite for Piano is Mumma’s first major piano work, and fulfills a role similar to that of
Alban Berg’s Piano Sonata Op. 1 as the point of departure into compositional maturity. He began work on
it in Tanglewood, Massachusetts, in August 1959, and completed it in March 1960 in Ann Arbor. It was
premiered by Ashley at the first ONCE Festival in February 1961. Like his Etude on Oxford Changes for
solo violin (1957) and Large Size Mograph 1962, it reflects Mumma’s preoccupation with flexible serial
procedures at that time. It is a “suite” in the limited sense of a collection of four brief, etude-like movements
played in close succession. The numbered title for each suggests the range of tempo possibilities.
The Suite for Piano summarizes many of the distinctive features of Mumma’s piano music of the next forty
years. The prelude (seen in autograph as Example 1) demonstrates his characteristic compression in its
single, super-charged measure.
Ex. 1: Suite for Piano (1960), Part 1
Its innovative notation across six staves frees the pianist to choose the register of selected chords (those
connected by dashes). The polymetric rhythms and wide displacements, which have precedents in the
music of Ives, Carter, and Messiaen, are enhanced by constantly changing dynamics. Concealed in the
atomized texture, however, are traces of melody suggestive of Mumma’s admiration for the counterpoint of
Bach and the Second Viennese School. The second piece expands on ideas from the prelude in a
succession of distinctive units, while the third is a punchy romp built on a descending chromatic row. The
final movement is the heart of the work, a study in piano sonority and extended time.
The Large Size Mograph 1962 is the only piece exclusively for piano solo in a collection of various-
sized Mographs written in 1962–4. They derive their time-structures (and punning title) from seismographic
recordings of earthquakes or underground nuclear tests. Although the pitches, registers, and vertical
combinations are the composer’s choice, the rhythmic attacks and some of the dynamics are pre-
determined by the seismic wave patterns. As Mumma has commented: “I was intrigued with the
relationship similarities between the time-travel patterns of P and S waves and the sound-reflection
characteristics of musical performance spaces.” The resulting soundscape unfolds with the unpredictable
conviction of nature. It was premiered by Larry Leitch at the ONCE Festival in December 1962 (see
The piano music of the 1970s and 1980s consists of the Eleven Note Pieces & Decimal Passacaglia, Sixpac
Sonatas, and Threesome. Composed during Mumma’s years at the University of California, these works
reflect a more “neoclassical” approach to form and texture responsive to the performance resources of
those years. A sign of the times was his collaboration in the late 1970s in the building of historical replicas of
a 17th-century Flemish harpsichord and an 18th-century portable clavichord, on which he composed and
The Eleven Note Pieces & Decimal Passacaglia were conceived for the baroque harpsichord, with
its limited pitch and dynamic range. Mumma also advocates their performance on the clavichord,
fortepiano, or modern piano, with the avoidance of “exaggerated dynamics, performance nuance and
gesture.” Composed in Santa Cruz, California, in 1978, the set was premiered there in March 1979 by the
harpsichordist Durand Begault (the dedicatee of the second piece). Previous recordings on harpsichord are
those by the composer and by Linda Burman-Hall, another dedicatee (see Discography). The title refers to
both the number of pieces and the restriction of each to eleven pitches, plus a closing passacaglia based on
ten variations of a ten-note repeating bass line (hence the “Decimal”). Other individual movements also
refer to baroque keyboard forms (including the toccata, fantasia, and gigue), with a late twentieth-century
statistical approach to the distribution of pitches and articulations.
The Eleven Note Pieces initiate Mumma’s later piano style in their almost exaggerated brevity and their
initial intention for private use. The work is also a form of musical autobiography, with tributes to significant
friends and associates that include composers Luigi Dallapiccola and Robert Ashley, photographer-
composer Jacques Bekaert, and cousin Carolyn Cook. There are snapshots of Mumma’s 1968 Latin-
American tour with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company and his residencies in Uruguay (1975) and
Argentina (1977) in pieces for composer Graciela Paraskevaídis and composer-carpenter Eduardo Bértola,
or in memory of Padre Mujica, a priest of the urban poor assassinated in Argentina in 1974. Together they
form a ravishing cycle of fragments, none more understated than the eleven-fold intonation on a single note
for Uruguayan composer Coriún Aharonián. Mumma’s bell-like etude for Pauline Oliveros, seen in
Example 2, uses graphic notation to indicate pitch duration and release.
The set of Sixpac Sonatas was initiated in 1985 with a request to contribute to a commemorative volume
for musicologist H. Wiley Hitchcock, with whom Mumma had studied at the University of Michigan.
Hitchcock’s research on both French baroque and twentieth-century American music elicited a compact
fusion of past and present. Mumma’s enjoyment in the project inspired an additional five sonatas over the
next few years. Like the Eleven Note Pieces, the Sixpac Sonatas are playable on piano or harpsichord. In
form, all six are variants of the classic AABB + coda form that has precedents in both the eighteenth-century
harpsichord sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti and the prepared-piano Sonatas and Interludes of John Cage.
Some of the sonatas follow this model more strictly, while those for architect Julia Wilson Jones and
composer Homer Keller are freer in form, with constant manipulation of the musical ideas and concealed
repetitions interspersed with contrasting fragments. The closing codas of all six sonatas witness some of
Mumma’s most inventive transformational writing. The last sonata was completed only in 1997, when he
found an appropriate closure in its heroically difficult coda. When viewed as a set, the Sixpac Sonatas are a
significant addition to the genre of the piano sonata in the twentieth century.
Although arranged for piano in 1996, Threesome is a reworking of several trio-divertimenti for mixed
ensembles from Mumma’s Faisandage et Galimafrée (1973–83), and as such relates to the works of those
years. He has called this piano set an “indulgence,” which allowed him to vary and restructure the earlier
pieces from a new perspective. Like the “Minuet al Rovescio e Trio Extruduto” from Faisandage on which
it is based, the second Threesome reinterprets the Minuet from Haydn’s Symphony No. 47 of 1772 (which
Haydn too had reworked for solo piano in the Sonata Hob. XVI: 26). Mumma’s minuet is—like Haydn’s—a
palindrome (reversing midway), while its middle section mimics the typical alternating rhythm of many trios
from Haydn’s early keyboard sonatas. On the whole, however, it subverts classical order in its increasingly
wayward digressions that mysteriously find their way back to their source. The third Threesome is a
transcription of the “March Waltz” from Faisandage. The first Threesome is perhaps the gem of the set. It
alludes freely to materials of Faisandage (its “Fanfare,” “March Waltz,” and “Notturno” movements) to
create a spacious tableau of fragments, each a distinctive gesture of no more than several seconds in length.
The resulting assortment of finely crafted sound-bites is only in the most ironic sense a Galimafrée (a badly
cooked stew made from scraps, according to the Larousse Gastronomique).
The works of the 1990s consists of miniatures for modern piano grouped into collections. Although parts of
these collections derive from sketches from the 1960s or earlier, much of the work was completed in a burst
of compositional activity in the mid-1990s following Mumma’s early retirement from academia.
Jardin is a suite of eight pieces completed in 1997, but building on sketches that go back as early as 1958.
Its premiere by Daan Vandewalle took place in Madrid in March 2008. Jardin celebrates the “garden of a
long life” as elaborated by the composer: “In my New England childhood were elms, birches, and poplars
(many of the latter came down in a 1938 hurricane, one of my first experiences of loss), a tricycle and
fences, and the moon. In our World War II ‘victory-garden’ were planted fruits and vegetables, and even
my mother’s attempt at asparagus. When I met Max Ernst in the south of France in 1970, the moon joined
the asparagus.” Mumma has special affection for the four “planted songs,” two of which “are from the same
seeds, but as seeds do, grew differently, like different grapes from the same stock.”
The nine Songs without Words of the 1990s are individual pieces that explore various compositional
approaches. Those for Taylor and Kim seem to take their title at face value, unfolding in a single lyrical
gesture. The pair for Felciano and Exon juxtapose in their outer sections the motivic-contrapuntal
procedures of the Sixpac Sonatas with a contrasting central episode that explodes with spectral pitches
splattered across the keyboard. Perhaps most unusual are the pieces for Christian Wolff, Dominic Gill
(soprapensiero), and David Revill, each of which evokes a timeless sound-space. Special to all three are
their extended techniques for the damper-raising and sostenuto pedals of the grand piano, with a huge
dynamic range that includes near-silence of resonating partials. The elegy for David Tudor was written on
the day of his death (August 13, 1996): “After being informed that day by telephone,” Mumma has written,
“I had only the impetus to create something.” Its late-romantic aura recalls Tudor’s affectionate playing of
Alkan, Debussy, or Scriabin when among special friends.
Graftings (1990–96), dedicated to Daan Vandewalle, revisits the botanical metaphor of the “planted
songs” from Jardin. The six pieces germinated from a single shoot—a chord of E, C, E flat, heard at the start
of each—but each grows differently. In tone they are austere and rigorously asymmetrical, except for the
wistful slip of a waltz in the penultimate piece.
The titles of the Four Pack Ponies—Bay, Connemara, or Dun—celebrate the various types of pony that
Mumma encountered in New Mexico in the mid-1990s. They are dedicated to his four Taylor cousins, with
whom he had spent childhood summers there. Like Jardin this set is evocative rather than exploratory, with
the most complex vignette given to the Chestnut, caught nodding off in the hot afternoon.
The most eclectic set is the Basket of Strays, which assembles six wild children of varied parentage.
Treble Song (1996) is the piano version of a lyrical dialogue for flute and piano or guitar. Soft Saloon
Song (1977) is a set of variations on a mysteriously forlorn scrap of a tune. It was composed for dancer-
choreographer Jann McCauley of the Portland Dance Theatre for her closing solo in the dance piece
Earheart: Flights, Formations, and Starry Nights. Originally performed with the top line played by an
Argentinian bandoneón, the solo piano version makes for an especially dense web of inner lines. The tang
of the bandoneón is also recreated in Un bocado de tango (a bite of tango), composed in 1970 during a
time of political upheaval in South America. When performed there, the inflammatory subtitle “de los
desaparecidos”— referring to the lost victims of military rule—had to be omitted, but their fate is chillingly
depicted in its abrupt ending. The rambunctious Tearing off: a piece of 2001 was written in response to
a title too good to resist. Clavichord at 18, with its period embellishments, was composed for the
birthday of Mumma’s handmade instrument. The tipsy Octal Waltz was written in 1980 for a
harpsichord specially tuned in eight-note equal temperament, making it perhaps the earliest example of this
unusual microtonal tuning. When played on a piano in twelve-tone equal temperament (as here), it views
the romantic waltz as if through a distorting mirror.
The pieces From the Sushibox form an ongoing collection of works. Of these, the Sushiverticals and
Sushihorizontals are each notated on a single page and are rarely more than two minutes in length. Like
the contents of a sushi-box, they were prepared swiftly with relatively few ingredients to create morsels both
nourishing and aesthetically pleasing. They were assembled into two sets in 1996; the designations “vertical”
or “horizontal” refer to the page-format (upright or landscape). The dedications honor friends and
colleagues esteemed for their creative work. These works are ideally suited to the recording medium; many
of their subtle resonances are audible only under optimal listening conditions.
The Sushiverticals (1996) are character portraits of five unique individuals. The first piece, dedicated to
Merce Cunningham (see Example 3), illustrates many features of the set. Its additional bottom staff
represents the pitches that are pressed without sounding and sustained with the middle (sostenuto) pedal.
The two conventional staves also include three “catch pedals” (in which a percussive tone is caught by the
damper-raising right pedal immediately after it is struck to create an after-resonance). Its content echoes
what Mumma calls the “contrasts of speed and space” of Cunningham’s physical gestures—the small
movements at the extremes of hand or foot, the held positions, and the “staccato blur” of his kinetic bursts.
The “Octet” for David Behrman, eight discrete chords sustained throughout, honors the elegance of this
“gently sonorous person.” Lou Harrison’s piece is a tribute to a “wonderfully legato individual,” while that
for his companion Bill Colvig is more complicated, reflecting the “quiet vigor” of an energetic builder. The
subtle “painterly study” for the composer’s father is performed slowly and freely with the left pedal (una
corda) depressed throughout, which softens the harmonics.
The set of Three Perspectives, completed and assembled in the Sushibox in 1996, exists in relative
isolation from its surroundings. Perhaps Mumma’s most private work, it was sketched in late 1966 following
the tragic death of his wife, Jacqueline Leuzinger. He returned to the pieces repeatedly in the 1970s and
1980s in an ongoing process of grief. The outer movements are somber reflections on a shared chromatic
theme; they surround the anguished outburst of the central movement to form a triptych unique among his
The eleven Sushihorizontals (1986–96) are assembled within a framework provided by the pieces for
poet Jackson Mac Low, theoretical mathematician Paul Erdös, and composer-critic Charles Shere, which
are assigned positions 1, 6, and 11 as desired by the pianist. Grouped symmetrically around the centerpiece
are four movable pairs (2/10, 3/9, 4/8, 5/7) that are related to one another for musical or personal reasons.
The birthday portraits for Mumma’s two sons exude youthful energy (5/7), while the pair for Agnes Martin
and Bun-Ching Lam (3 and 9) feature austere repeated tones. The Sushihorizontals are perhaps Mumma’s
most austere and exploratory piano set. His more recent compositions include From the Rendition Series
(2006) and Gambrelled Tapestry (2007), which combine piano and electronics with newly evolving
Musicologist Michelle Fillion is Associate Professor of Musicology at the University of Victoria (British
Columbia, Canada). Her research includes numerous essays on the instrumental music of Haydn and
Beethoven, editions of classical keyboard music, and a forthcoming book on the music in the literary world
of novelist E. M. Forster.
Gordon Mumma was born in 1935 in Framingham, Massachusetts. He studied horn and piano in
Chicago and Detroit. In 1952 Mumma entered the University of Michigan, where he engaged with the
composers in the class of Ross Lee Finney. In Ann Arbor he co-founded with Robert Ashley the
Cooperative Studio for Electronic Music (1958–66), and again with Ashley collaborated in Milton Cohen’s
Space Theatre (1957–64) along with a group of uniquely creative individuals in art, architecture, and film.
Mumma was one of the organizers of the historic ONCE Festival (1961–66), which made Ann Arbor an
important site for the performance of innovative new music. From 1966 to 1974 he was, with John Cage
and David Tudor, a composer-musician with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, for which he
composed four commissioned works, including Mesa (1966) and Telepos (1971). During these years he
also performed in the Sonic Arts Union with Ashley, David Behrman, and Alvin Lucier. From 1975 to
1994 he was a Professor of Music at the University of California. In 2000 Mumma received the biennial
John Cage Award of the Foundation for Contemporary Arts, New York.
Belgian pianist Daan Vandewalle (born in 1968) is an internationally recognized specialist in new music,
with a focus on twentieth-century American piano repertoire. He studied at the Royal Conservatory of
Ghent (Belgium) with Claude Coppens, and at Mills College (Oakland, California) with Alvin Curran. He is
a Fellow of the Belgian-American Educational Foundation, and teaches piano at the Royal Conservatory of
Ghent. Ever since his debut in 1992, Vandewalle’s repertoire has become increasingly diverse and
challenging, both technically and intellectually. His programs often combine music by such contemporaries
as Alvin Curran, Clarence Barlow, Morton Feldman, Christian Wolff, Olivier Messiaen, Elliott Carter, and
Frederic Rzewski with classical works by Chopin, Brahms, Liszt, Mussorgsky, or Busoni. As an improviser
he has collaborated widely with David Moss, Fred Frith, Han Bennink, Chris Cutler, Barry Guy, and
others. He also forms a duo with Australian pianist Geoffrey Douglas Madge. Vandewalle’s recordings
include Charles Ives’s “Concord” Sonata (Gailly), Fred Frith’s Seven Circles (Tzadik), and most recently, a
highly acclaimed 4-CD set of Alvin Curran’s Inner Cities (Long Distance Classics) released in 2005. Since
2007 Vandewalle has been programming Gordon Mumma’s piano music regularly on his recitals.
Electronic Music of Theatre and Public Activity. New World Records 80632-2.
Live-Electronic Music. Tzadik TZ 7074.
Studio Retrospect. Lovely Music LCD 1093.
Music from the ONCE Festival 1961–1966. Includes Gestures II; Greys; Large Size Mograph 1962;
Meanwhile, A Twopiece; A Quarter of Fourpiece; Sinfonia for Twelve Instruments and Tape. New World
Records 80567-2 (5 CDs).
Very Small Size Mographs 1962 and 1963, Small Size Mograph 1964, Medium Size Mograph 1964, and
two sections from Gestures II. David Tudor, Gordon Mumma, pianos; Song without Words in memoriam
David Tudor. Gordon Mumma, piano. New World Records 80651-2.
Eleven Note Pieces & Decimal Passacaglia. Gordon Mumma, harpsichord. Slowscan 9 (Den Bosch,
Eleven Note Pieces & Decimal Passacaglia with Octal Waltz. Linda Burman-Hall, harpsichord. Musical
Heritage Society 513988A.
From Faisandage et Galimafrée: Fanfare, March-Waltz, Hommage, Scherzo. Leta Miller, flute, with
Ensemble Nova, California. Opus-1 129-A (LP).
From Sushihorizontals: For Jackson Mac Low. Gordon Mumma, piano. Crayon 1.
From the Rendition Series. Tomoko Mukaiyama, piano; Gordon Mumma, electronics. November Music
Fillion, Michelle. Live interviews with the composer and with Daan Vandewalle (2007–08).
Miller, Leta E. “ONCE and Again: The Evolution of a Legendary Festival” (13–104). In Music from the
ONCE Festival 1961-1966. New World Records 80567-2 (5 CDs).
Mumma, Gordon. Unpublished papers and notes.
Sixpac Sonatas, Four Pack Ponies, and Graftings forthcoming from C. F. Peters. 5 Sushiverticals and 11
Sushihorizontals published by Material Press, Berlin (http://www.materialpress.com). Large Size Mograph
1962 published by BMI Canada. All other compositions are unpublished.
All works © Gordon Mumma 2008 (BMI).
Producers: Christoph Claßen, Udo Wüstendörfer
Engineer: Thomas Eschler
Editing: Christoph Franke
Executive Producer: Michael Rebhahn (hr)
Recorded May 26–28, 2007 in the hr-Sendesaal des Hessischen Rundfunks, Frankfurt, Germany.
Digital mastering: Paul Zinman, SoundByte Productions, NYC
Design: Bob Defrin Design, Inc., NYC
This recording was made possible by a grant from the Francis Goelet Charitable Lead
FOR NEW WORLD RECORDS:
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