Menotti: The Unicorn, the Gorgon and the Manticore


Gian Carlo Menotti

The Unicorn, the Gorgon

and the Manticore

Jack Gottlieb

Presidential Suite

R. Murray Schafer

A Medieval Bestiary

The Carolina Chamber Chorale

Timthy Koch, conductor

Jack Gottlieb

Born October 12, 1930 in New Rochelle, New York, Jack Gottlieb was first encouraged to become a composer by Max Helfman, noted composer of synagogue music. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Queens College [Phi Beta Kappa] in 1953, a Master of Fine Arts from Brandeis University, 1955, and a Doctor of Musical Arts from the University of Illinois, 1964. His teachers of composition were Karol Rathaus, Irving Fine, Robert Palmer and Burrill Phillips. He also studied with Aaron Copland and Boris Blacher at the Berkshire Music Center, Tanglewood.

From 1958 to 1966, Dr. Gottlieb was Leonard Bernstein's Assistant at the New York Philharmonic. He taught at Loyola University, New Orleans in the summer of 1966, and from 1970 to 1973 he served as Music Director of Temple Israel, St. Louis, Missouri. During the 1960s and 1970s he was in residence nine times at MacDowell Colony, NH, and one time at Yaddo, Saratoga Springs, New York.

In 1967, his sacred service Love Songs for Sabbath was performed at the College of St. Catherine in St. Paul, Minnesota, probably the first time in history that a full length Jewish service has ever been heard under Catholic auspices. In 1973, he was named Composer in Residence at Hebrew Union College. Two years later he was appointed the first full-time professor of music at its New York School of Sacred Music. Gottlieb's synagogue music was integrated into an Episcopalian vespers service at St. Bartholomew's Church, New York City, in 2000, another historical first.

In 1977, Gottlieb rejoined Leonard Bernstein as Publications Director of Amberson Enterprises, Inc., a company that manages Mr. Bernstein's multi-musical legacy. Among other publications, he is the editor of Leonard Bernstein, Young People's Concerts (Anchor-Doubleday, 1992). Currently, he is consultant for the Bernstein Estate and Editor of “Prelude, Fugue & Riffs”, the Bernstein Newsletter. His numerous writings on Bernstein have appeared in many publications: jacket notes for recordings, concert programs, catalogs.

In 1978 he established Theophilous Music, Inc. as publisher of his music. His non-sacred works are distributed by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., and his sacred works by Transcontinental Music Publications. He is former, long-time President of the American Society for Jewish Music. Dr. Gottlieb is a reviewer and author of articles on musical topics, and annotator for concert programs and recordings.

His discography includes two releases on the Premier label: Evening, Morn &Noon - The sacred Music of Jack Gottlieb [PRCD1018] and Presidential Suite (Gregg Smith Singers), [PRCD1030].

Richard engquist

Richard Engquist has written lyrics for many musicals and revues, among them the award-winning Kuni-Leml (which has been performed throughout the United States), Elizabeth and Essex, Dennis the Menace, and Abie's Island Rose (which premiered in New York in May, 2000). He is a member of the BMI-Lehman Engel Musical Theatre Workshop and the Damatists Guild.

Presidential Suite

Presidential Suite is a celebration of America's priceless heritage of liberty. Inspired by the wisdom and whimsy of some of our most colorful presidents, it juxtaposes the eloquence of John F. Kennedy and Franklin D. Roosevelt, with the journalistic pith of Theodore Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman's blunt common sense, Abraham Lincoln's homespun wit and Thomas Jefferson's irony - plus a legendary quip from the taciturn Calvin Coolidge. This patriotic work combines idealism with light-heartedness, inspiration with a dash of salt.

— Jack Gottlieb

R. Murray Schafer

“Schafer's is a strong and benevolent, highly original imagination and intellect - a dynamic power whose manifold personal expressions and aspirations are in total accord with the urgent needs and dreams of humanity today.” — Yehudi Menuhin

Born in Sarnia, Ontario in 1933 Raymond Murray Schafer has won national and international acclaim not only for his achievement as a composer but also as an educator, environmentalist, literary scholar, visual artist and provocateur. Through his unique explorations of the relationships between music, performer, audience and setting, he has expanded the potential and appreciation of music and its place in the arts and culture of our time.

Many of his compositions and writings stand as landmarks in the evolution of music and its communication in the twentieth century. Schafer's diversity of interests is reflected by the enormous range and depth of such works as Loving (1965), Lustro (1972), Music for Wilderness Lake (1979), Flute Concerto (1984) and the World Soundscape Project, which united the social, scientific and artistic aspects of sound and introduced the concept of acoustic ecology. Major books include E.T.A. Hoffmann and Music (1975), The Tuning of the World (1977), On Canadian Music (1984), The Thinking Ear: On Music Education (1986) and Voices of Tyranny: Temples of Silence (1993).

Medieval Bestiary

The texts of the songs in A Medieval Bestiary are based on T.H. White's translation of a Latin bestiary dating from the twelfth century in Lincolnshire, England, now to be found in the Cambridge University Library.

In the Middle Ages bestiaries were serious works of natural history. They were anonymous compilations of what was known or presumed about the characteristics and habits of animals, both real and mythological. Because they were compiled by churchmen, the behavior of animals frequently seemed to point up an instructive moral for humans. A modern audience may find these connections strange or humorous; but at the time they were intended in all seriousness.

For the convenience of singing, I have paraphrased T.H. White's texts, but in no case have I tampered with the meaning. The text of the Weasel song needed to go into verse, and the Bestiary song at the end is my fabrication.

The music roams through various styles. “Leo the Lion” is partly derived from Guillaume de Machaut (with a flash of Mendelssohn in the middle). “The Elephant” has the resonance of Russian Orthodox chanting. The end of “Castor the Beaver” is reminiscent of Baptist gospel song. “The Weasel” is Notre Dame style (i.e. 12th century), while “The Bonnaçon” veers into baroque and the finale returns to medieval organum.

The general spirit is festive and both earthy and divine, as was the obvious intention of the original compilers.

— R. Murray Schafer

Gian Carlo Menotti

Gian Carlo Menotti was born on 7 July 1911, in Cadegliano, Italy. He celebrates his 90th birthday year during the 2001-2002 season. At the age of 7, under the guidance of his mother, he began to compose songs, and four years later he wrote the words and music of his first opera, The Death of Pierrot.

In 1923 he began his formal musical training at the Verdi Conservatory in Milan. Following the death of his father, his mother took him to the United States, where he was enrolled at Philadelphia's Curtis Institute of Music. There he completed his musical studies, working in composition under Rosario Scalero.

His first mature work, the one-act opera buffa, Amelia Goes to the Ball, was premiered in 1937, a success that led to a commission from the National Broadcasting Company to write an opera especially for radio, The Old Maid and the Thief, the first such commission ever given. His first ballet, Sebastian, followed in 1944, and for this he wrote the scenario as well as the score. After the premiere of his Piano Concerto in 1945, Menotti returned to opera with The Medium, shortly joined by The Telephone, both enjoying international success.

The Consul, Menotti's first full-length work, won the Pulitzer Prize and the New York Drama Critics Circle award as the best musical play of the year in 1954. By far Menotti's best-known work is the Christmas classic Amahl and the Night Visitors, composed for NBC-TV in 1951. This beloved opera celebrates the 50th anniversary of its premiere in 2001.

In addition to the numerous operatic works, Menotti has enriched the artistic world with ballets, including Errand into the Maze, and The Unicorn, the Gorgon, and the Manticore; Pastorale for Piano and Strings (1934); Poemetti, a suite of piano pieces for children (1937); The Hero (1952), a song on a text by Robert Horan; and Canti della Lontananza, a cycle of seven songs (1967).

1958 saw the opening of Menotti's own festival, the Festival of Two Worlds, in Spoleto, Italy. Devoted to the cultural collaboration of Europe and America in a program embracing all the arts, the Spoleto Festival has gone on to be one of the most popular festivals in Europe. The festival literally became “of two worlds” in 1977 with the founding of Spoleto USA in Charleston, South Carolina, which he led until 1993 when he became Director of the Rome Opera.

In 1984 Menotti was awarded the Kennedy Center Honor for lifetime achievement in the arts. He was chosen the 1991 “Musician of the Year” by Musical America, inaugurating worldwide tributes to the composer in honor of his 80th birthday. His music has been published by G. Schirmer since 1946.

The Unicorn, the Gorgon, and the Manticore

The Unicorn, the Gorgon, and the Manticore figures among the most accomplished of Menotti's works. Commissioned by the Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge Foundation, it calls for chorus, dancers, and nine instrumentalists. The text focuses on a well-to-do, but eccentric man in a castle and presents his life in three stages, his youth, middle and old age. Three unusual pets symbolize these stages - a unicorn, a gorgon, and a manticore. The Unicorn is a mythical animal, having the legs of a buck with sharp, cloven hooves, the tail of a lion, the head and body of a horse, and, in the middle of its forehead, a single horn, white at the base, black in the middle, and red at the tip. The body is white, the head is red, and the eyes are blue. By comparison, the gorgon is a rather hideous creature with monstrous teeth, scales instead of skin, a tuft of hair on its head, and hand with sharp, brazen claws. Tall, big, and loud, the Gorgon walks stately and proud taking no heed of the townsfolk. He is fearless and wild, fascinating to onlookers, yet frightful to children. Even stranger is the manticore, a fantastical beast, having the head of a man but with three rows of teeth, the body of a lion but with porcupine's quills, and the poisonous tail of a scorpion. Afraid of love, the Manticore hides in secret lairs and feeds on bitter herbs. It flees everyone, the envious, the curious, the shallow. Carelessness in dealing with it might lead to the loss of a limb, impalement, or even death.

The narrative follows a fairly straightforward scheme. Each appearance of the strange man sets off a series of events. When he first appears with his unicorn, the astonished townsfolk ascribe this oddity to insanity. Yet, the sheer novelty of the unicorn compels at least the Countess to overcome her amazement and persuade the Count to follow suit. The second appearance of the strange man, this time not with the unicorn, but with the hideous gorgon, further astonishes the townsfolk who take the unicorn for dead, apparently murdered by the strange man. The arrival of the new creature gives the Countess the opportunity to dispense with her unicorn (it has grown commonplace) and to acquire a gorgon. To follow this new fashion, the townsfolk kill their own unicorns. Not surprisingly, the same set of events takes place when a manticore appears instead of the gorgon. But the subsequent disappearance of the manticore so scandalizes the townsfolk that they proceed directly to the castle to pass judgement on the strange man. When they arrive, however, they find him on his deathbed, with the three creatures at his side. Deriding all those who blindly live through social conventions, all those who value things blest only by fashion, he finally suggests that only in the artist will society find redemption, for it is the artist who lives by and for truth. Although replete with witty aphorisms, puns and humorous punchlines, the narrative is a biting critique of aristocratic and bourgeois society. The story is told across a multi-movement structure in which a cappella movements alternate with instrumental interludes and culminate at various points in accompanied madrigals. The music often evokes madrigalian vocal styles with frequent shifts in texture and tone painting. There are even a few frantic baroque fugues that register something of the townsfolk's astonishment.

— Dillon Parmer

Timothy Koch

Timothy Koch, conductor, has been recognized as a champion of contemporary composers and as a leading interpreter of choral/orchestral masterworks since he served a one-year appointment in 1993-94 as Assistant Professor of Conducting and Ensembles at the Eastman School of Music. He led the first Eastman-Rochester performances of Karolju by 1993 Pulitzer Prize winner, Christopher Rouse, and Symphony No. 3, “Kaddish,” by Leonard Bernstein, as well as world premieres of major works by Sydney Hodkinson and Robert Morris. He also conducted the world premiere performance of Samuel Adler's oratorio, Choose Life, a major work commissioned for Robert Shaw and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra. The performance was broadcast on National Public Radio's Performance Today.

At the vanguard of his generation's conductors, Koch has recently founded the Carolina Chamber Chorale, a major new professional ensemble with an international roster of 26 singers from throughout North America, based in Charleston, South Carolina. The Chorale debuted to wide critical acclaim with two programs at the 2000 Piccolo Spoleto Festival

Prior to his arrival in South Carolina, Koch served five years as Director of Choral Activities and Opera at the University of Southern Mississippi. He also served as Artistic Director of the USM Conductors Conference, which annually attracted conductors, composers, clinicians, and performing ensembles from across the United States and beyond.

Koch made his European debut in 1996 at the Prague Spring Festival conducting works of Haydn and of Petr Eben, the leading composer in the Czech Republic and Chair of the Prague Spring Festival. Eben praised Koch for his “perfect performance of my works.” In the field of opera, Koch has conducted critically acclaimed productions of works spanning operatic history. Singers with whom he has collaborated are regularly featured on the leading opera stages and with the great orchestras of the world.

Along with pianist Alan Feinberg, Koch has recorded orchestral works of Samuel Adler for Albany Records (TROY 328) under a grant from the Aaron Copland Fund for Music. He also has recorded music of Jack Gottlieb and Michael Isaacson for the Milken Foundation's American Jewish Music Archive.

Koch has conducted the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, the Illinois Symphony Orchestra, Abilene Philharmonic Orchestra, Mississippi Symphony Orchestra, the Millbrook Orchestra of West Virginia, the Eastman Philharmonia, the Eastman School Symphony Orchestra, and the North Carolina All-State Orchestra. He has served as Music Director of the Syracuse University Orchestra, the Eastman-Rochester Chorus, the Illinois Symphony Chorus, and Opera Theatre of Springfield, Illinois. He has conducted in competitions in Budapest, Hungary, and Besançon, France.

Koch holds degrees from Illinois Wesleyan University, the University of Illinois, and the Eastman School of Music. His principal teachers have included Kenneth Kiesler, Donald Neuen, and Helmuth Rilling.

The Carolina Chamber Chorale

The Carolina Chamber Chorale debuted in June 2000 at the Piccolo Spoleto Festival in Charleston, South Carolina under Founding Music Director and Conductor, Timothy Koch. In it's brief history C3 has collaborated with guest artists Samuel Adler and William Warfield, and composers Adler, Anthony Davis, Jack Gottlieb, Dan Locklair, and Ronald Perera, including premieres of works by Gottlieb and Locklair. Members of C3 travel to Charleston from across the United States and Canada. The Chorale's mission is to become the Southeast's foremost professional choir through innovative programming and world-class performance.


Jack Gottlieb: Presidential Suite

Ask Not (JFK) (Anthem)

Ask not, ask not,

Ask not what your country can do for you,

Ask what, ask what

You can do for your country,

Think what it's already done:

You have freedom to move,

To learn and to prove

You can find your own place in the sun.

(Ask not, ask not.)

It may not be easy

But who ever said

(Said life was a breeze?)

That life was a breeze or even fair?

(Who ever said that?)

As you go on your way

There's a risk every day,

And a prize you must learn to share.

(Ask not, ask not.)

You're one among many others,

Be one on whom someone depends.

You have dangers to face

And wrongs to erase,

And strangers to turn into friends.

When I hear the Star Spangled Banner,

When I see Old Glory unfurled,

I still can rejoice,

I still have a voice,

And I still feel a challenge hurled:

I know what my country has done for me,

Now what can I be for the world?


Doo-da, doo-da

Doo-da, doo-da

Doodle-lit, doot'n, doot'n, etc.

You can fool

All of the people

Some of the time,

You can fool

Some of the people all of the time.

You can fool

A lot of people

Most any day or night.

I'm not sayin' it's right,

I'm not sayin' it's cool

If you fool some people a lot.

But if you fool some people,

What have you really got?

— Not a whole lot!


Doodle-lit, doot'n, doot'n, etc.

`Cause you can't fool

All of the people

All of the time.

No you cannot fool

All of the people

All of the time.

And if you think you can

Then you are the one

Who's the fool.

Doo-da, doo-da.

So remember this rule,

And don't be a fool.

No. No!

Calvin's Creed (Softshoe Shuffle)

President Coolidge (juh)

Remarked (duh):

“I do not choose to run.”

(I do not choose to run.)

“I'll go home to Vermont,

That's all that I want

So long, Washington.”

“It'll be quiet there (fft!),

I'll breathe (gasp!)

The dry New England air.”

(The dry New England air.)

“I have been here awhile,

It isn't my style,

It isn't much fun.”

“I do not choose to run—





[Train sounds] Oo-ee! Oo-ee! Oo-ee!

Ching, chung, ching, chung

Ching, chung, ching, chung, etc.

The buck, buck, buck, buck,

Buck, buck, buck,

The buck stops here.

The buck, buck, buck, buck,

Buck, buck, buck,

The buck stops here.

I tell myself, each time I face defeat:

If you can't stand the heat, Get out of the kitchen!

If you don't dare to dive,

Get off the float,

If you don't care to swim, stop rocking the boat.

Oo-ee! Oo-ee! Oo-ee!

Ching! Chung! Chee!

My fellow citizens:

The presidential office is a lonely place

(A very lonely place),

That's why you've got to be strong,

(Be strong, strong, strong,

Strong, strong, strong.)

The pressure is enormous at a frantic pace

(A very frantic pace).

People keep yelling: you're wrong!

(Wrong, wrong, wrong.)

It's hard to make decisions

(It's hard to decide/Do it!),

It's hard to hang tough,

(Hang tough),

But still you've got to do what you do,

(Someone must do it/You do it.)

And all the time you're hoping,

And praying and groping

I wouldn't want to wish it

On you.

Oo-ee! Oo-ee! Oo-ee!

Chung! Ching!

Fellow Citizens.

[Whistle on top]

The buck, buck, buck, buck,

Buck, buck, buck,

The buck stops here.

The buck, buck, buck, buck,

Buck, buck, buck,

The buck stops here.

There's no place to hide

`Cause secrecy and freedom never mix!

When the buck stops here

You had better decide

If you can't win, you'll still get in your licks.

You can aim for the top,

Get busy and pitch in,

If you try and never stop,

You'll come through!

But if you can't stand the heat,

Get out of the kitchen,

Let the man from Independence

Stir the stew!

Oo! Oo!

The buck, buck, buck, buck,

Buck, buck, buck,

The buck, buck, buck, buck,

Buck, buck, buck,

The buck stops—Here!


—words by R.E. and J.G.

NO NEWS (Thomas J.) (Barbershop Chorale)

According to (ba-do)

Quotation from (ba-do)

Thomas Jefferson:

The man who reads nothing at all,

(Nothing at all)

The man who reads nothing at all,

But sits in a chair,

Staring at a wall,

From the winter to the fall,

Reading nothing at all,

(Not even on vacation,

Not even on vacation.)

The man who stands there fishin'

(Fish, `ishin')

And wishin', always wishin'

On a star,

(Wishin' on a star).

Then strolls along the strand,

Getting sand in his shoes,

Playing with a ball,

Reading nothing at all.

That man

Has a better education

That man—

A better education by far,

Than the man who reads nothing

But newspapers,

The man who reads nothing but news—


IN THE JUNGLE (Teddy R.) (Soundscape)

The Safari



Walk softly,



Through the creepy jungle night.

Be wary,

It's scary,

There's not a star in sight.

Smile brightly,

Tread lightly,

For the jungle is thick,

But above all

Walk softly,


And carry

A very

Big stick.

Carry a big stick.

The Jungle

Jungle Drums: Boom-chick-a-boom (repeat)

Native call: Hoi-ya, hoi-ya (repeat)

Lion roar: Graugh!

Parrot, throat trill: Trr!

Snake: S-s-s-s-s-s-s-s-s

Lion snort: Snaugh!

Rattle: Chuck-a, chuck-a, chuck-a

Bird whistle: To-whit! To-whit!

Howler monkey: Ah-oo! Ah-oo!

Cicada: Ka-rick, ka-rick, ka-rick

Mynah: Caw, caw, caw, caw

Lion: Graugh!

Drums: Boom-chick-a-boom (repeat)

Native call: Hoi-ya, hoi-ya (repeat)

Chimpanzee: Chee-chee, chee-chee, chee-chee

Apes, chest beating: Ungh-ga, ungh-ga

Elephant trumpet: Tarah!

Cicada: Ka-rick, ka-rick!

Graugh, Tarah, Ungh-ga, Trr, Caw,

Ka-rick, Chee-chee, Ah-oo. To-whit, et al.

RENDEZVOUS (FDR) (March/Finale)

This generation of Americans (Americans),

Has a rendezvous with destiny,

A rendezvous with destiny.

Brass Band: Tan-tan-ta-ra,

Tan-tan-ta-ra, Boom, Tzing!

We have a rendezvous with destiny,

We are a beacon,

We're a beacon for mankind,

(We are a beacon, kind!)

As we light the way to liberty,

Can we leave our neighbor behind?

We cannot live alone at peace,

Nor keep our heads in the sand,

Nor be like dogs in the manger,

And snarl at the stranger

In a far off land.

We can find the truth

When we are free to pursue it,

We can do what's right

When we are free to do it.

Brass Band: Tan-tan-ta-ra,

Tan-tan-ta-ra, Boom, Tzing!

We must live for ev'ry new opportunity,

To live free of hate and fear,

We have a rendezvous with destiny, (destiny),

We have a rendezvous,

And our destiny,

Ah, our destiny

Is here!

Ah, Ah, America!

© Copyright 1991 by Richard Engquist and Jack Gottlieb

R. Murray Schafer: A Medieval Bestiary

Leo the Lion

Leo the Lion, mightiest of beasts, will stand up to anyone. He prefers men to women and only eats children when hungry. Lions copulate the backward way. Lions fear the creaking of wheels and they sleep with their eyes open.

In this way Our Lord also, while sleeping, remains awake. As it says in the Psalm: “He that keepeth Israel slumbers not nor sleeps.”

The Panther

When a Panther has dined well, he hides away for three days. Then he wakes up and emits a loud belch, and immediately there comes the sweet smell of allspice from his mouth.

So it is with the Panther-Christ. When he was satiated with his incarnation he hid himself away; but after three days he rose from his sleep and emitted a mighty noise, breathing sweetness everywhere.

The Antelope

The Antelope has long legs and horns. The horns are shaped like a saw so that he can cut down trees.

O Man, you have two horns also: the Testaments of the Bible, to help you cut off all sin.

THE Elephant

The Elephant has no wish to copulate. Hence they never quarrel about women and adultery is unknown to them. When an Elephant falls down he cannot get up. Hence he leans against a tree. Hunters saw part way through the trees so that elephants will fall down. And as he falls he cries out, and immediately another elephant appears. But he is unable to lift him up, so they cry out together and twelve more elephants arrive. No use. Then at once there comes a very Insignificant Elephant who lifts him up.

Jesus Christ is the Most Insignificant Elephant. Jesus Christ has humbled Himself to show us his strength. Jesus Christ has raised Himself up in order to raise us all.

castor the beaver

Castor the Beaver is this animal's name. His testicles have brought him fame, for they make a capital medicine. Hunters hunt him for this reason. But Castor is bright; with a bite he cuts his testicles right off and escapes in flight. And what is more, if a hunter chases him again, he lifts up his leg and shows him his wound, and the hunter leaves him alone.

Hence every Christian who would be chaste must throw off all hidden vices and cast them in the devil's face.

the unicorn

Unicornus the unicorn has one horn in the middle of his forehead. He is a most attractive animal. He can only be trapped by a virgin. She must go alone into the woods. When the Unicorn sees her, he leaps into her lap - oh yes, he leaps into her lap.

Jesus Christ is also a Unicorn, for in the Psalms we read: “He hath raised up a horn of salvation.” And as He Himself has said, “I am the one.”

the weasel

The Weasel moves from place to place

Catching snakes and moles and mice.

Some say weasels also eat rats,

But only when they run out of mice.

Weasels are known for excellent ears,

But they soon forget whatever they hear.

This is a habit that relates

The Weasel to the human race,

For driven by love of earthly things

We forget God's saving grace.

Weasel sings from time to time,

But only when he's had too much wine.

Altogether he's no good model

For the human race to follow.

the manticore

There is an animal known as the Manticore. It has the body of a lion and the face of a man, with three rows of teeth. Its voice is shrill and resembles a flute. It eats human flesh.

the hyaena

This animal is called the Hyaena. It eats the bodies of the dead. Hence it is a dirty brute. Because its body is rigid, it is unable to turn its head. It has no gums in its mouth, but only a single tooth-bone that cannot be blunted by anything. Hyaenas have no sex. Since they are neither male nor female, they are neither faithful nor pagan, but those about whom they say: they serve neither Mammon nor God.

the bonnaçon (Bison)

There is an animal called the Bonnaçon. It has the head of a bull, and its body is covered with long hair. When it is chased, it lets out a fart that covers three acres and consumes all trees in flame. So it is with the Devil, that everything he breathes on catches fire and burns with the selfish flames of Hell.

the bestiary

We could go on and tell you all

about other animals great and small,

of toads and snakes and hares and dogs,

of wolves and hawks and spiders and hogs,

and humans too in all shapes and dispositions,

generals, merchants and politicians,

churchmen too, of all persuasions,

bishops, priests and other magicians.

So you see they're all much the same,

some good some bad and some in between.

Certainly one must take care

with the devil offering itself everywhere.

If you would escape temptation,

pray to God for your salvation,

and read the Bible every day,

unless you know a better way

to avoid damnation.

We could suggest one

that would be more fun:

Devote a little energy

to the study of the Bestiary.

Here you will find morality

combined with natural history

so that through the animals you'll see

the weakness of humanity.

Then may we suggest you seek salvation

through this edifying recreation.

In the name of God who created us all, Amen.

Gian Carlo Menotti: The Unicorn, the gorgon, and the Manticore



There once lived a Man in a Castle and a strange man was he.

He shunned the Countess' parties;

he yawned at town meetings;

he would not let the doctor take his pulse;

he did not go to church on Sundays.

Oh what a strange man is the Man in the Castle!

He shuns the Countess' parties; he yawns at town meetings;

he will not let the doctor take his pulse;

He does not go to church on Sundays.

Oh what a strange man is the Man in the Castle!

He does not go to church on Sundays.

INTERLUDE I (The dance of the Man in the Castle.)


Ev'ry Sunday afternoon, soft winds fanning the fading sun,

all the respectable folk went out walking slowly

on the pink promenade by the sea.

Proud husbands velvety plump,

with embroidered silk pale ladies.

At four o'clock they all greeted each other;

They spoke ill of each other at six:

“How d'you do?” “Very well, thank you.”

“Have you heard?” “Pray, do tell me.”

“Tcha tcha tcha tcha tcha ra tcha ra tcha tcha tcha tcha tchi tcha.”

“How funny, how amusing, how odd! Ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha!”

“How well you look!” “How pretty your dress!”

“Thank you.” “Thank you.”

“Good bye.” “Good bye.”

“Isn't she a gossip.” “Isn't she a fright.”

“How d'you do?” “Very well, thank you.”

“What do you think of this and that?”

“In my humble opinion:

Bla bla bla bla bla la la la la bla bla bla bli bla.

“Good bye.” “Good bye.”

“Oh what a pompous ass.” “Oh what a fool.”

INTERLUDE II (Promenade)

SECOND MADRIGAL (Enter the Man in the Castle and the Unicorn)

One Sunday afternoon the proud Man in the Castle

joined the crowd in their promenade by the sea.

He walked slowly down the quai

leading by a silver chain a captive unicorn.

The townsfolk stopped to stare at the ill-assorted pair.

Thinking the man insane some laughed with pity

some laughed with scorn:

“What a scandalous sight to see a grownup man

promenade a unicorn all through the city in plain daylight!

If one can stroke the cat and kick the dog;

if one can pluck the peacock and flee the bee;

if one can ride the horse and hook the hog;

if one can tempt the mouse and swat the fly,

Why, why would a man both rich and well-born

raise a unicorn?”

“If one can strike the boar with the spear

and pierce the lark with an arrow;

If one can hunt the fox and the deer

and net the butterfly and eat the sparrow;

If one can bid the falcon fly and let the robin die,

Why, why would a man both rich and well-born

raise a unicorn?”

“If one can skin the mole and crush the snake;

if one can tame the swan on the lake

and harpoon the dolphin in the sea;

if one can chain the bear and train the flea;

if one can sport with the monkey

and chatter with the magpie,

Why, why would a man both rich and well-born

raise a unicorn?”


THIRD MADRIGAL (Dance of the Man in the Castle and the Unicorn)

Unicorn, Unicorn, my swift and leaping Unicorn,

Keep pace with me, stay close to me,

don't run astray my gentle rover.

Beware of the virgin sleeping under the lemon tree, her hair adrift among the clover.

She hides a net under her petticoat

and silver chains around her hips,

And if you kiss her lips the hidden hunter

will pierce your throat.

Unicorn, beware, beware! Her crimson lips are hard as coral, and her white thighs are only a snare. For you, for you who likes to roam, a kiss, a kiss is poisoned food;

Much sweeter fare is the green laurel;

much safer home is the dark wood.

FOURTH MADRIGAL (The Count and the Countess)

“Why are you sad my darling? Why are you so sad?

What shall I buy to make you smile again?

Velvets from Venice, furs from Tartary, or dwarfs from Spain?”

“Why was I ever born?

Ah, my husband my dear! Alas!

Ah, my master, my lord! Alas!

Ah! I fear that you can not afford to calm my sorrow.

“Why was I ever born if I must go through life

without a Unicorn!”

“Ah dry your tears my pet, my wife.

Whether I swim or fly, whether I steal or borrow

I swear that you will own a Unicorn tomorrow.”

INTERLUDE III (As the Count and the Countess appear with a Unicorn, the Townsfolk stare at them in surprise. Soon every respectable couple in town imitates them until every respectable couple is seen with its own Unicorn.)

FIFTH MADRIGAL (Enter the Man in the Castle with the Gorgon)

Behold the Gorgon stately and proud.

His eyes transfixed but not unaware of the envious stare

of the common crowd.

Behold the Gorgon tall, big and loud.

He does not see the smiling enemy.

He does not pause to acknowledge the racket

of the critical cricket

nor to confute the know-how of the sententious cow.

He slowly sarabands down the street ignoring the hunter

but mixing with the elite.

Fearless and wild, his wings widespread,

He fascinates the maiden and frightens the child.

SIXTH MADRIGAL (The Townsfolk and the Man in the Castle)

“And what is that? A Bloody Nun, a werewolf?”

“This is a Gorgon.”

“And what did you do with the Unicorn, please?”

“He only liked to gambol and tease.

I quickly grew tired of the fun,

So, I peppered and grilled him.”

“Do you mean?”

“Yes, yes, I killed him.”

“Oh but the man must be out of his mind.

How ungrateful of him. How unkind.

He must be out of his mind to wilfully destroy

the pretty, pretty Unicorn so gentle and coy.

Had he found something prettier at least,

but look at the Gorgon the horrible beast.”

Wicked is Man, Patient is God,

All He gives Man to enjoy,

Man will destroy.

Banish all sleep, weep for the dead.

Cover my head with a black veil, silence the nightingale.

Muffle the horn and the lute.

For the Unicorn slain by man will not leap ever again.

SEVENTH MADRIGAL (The Count and the Countess. The latter has secretly poisoned her Unicorn.)

“Why are you sad, my darling?

Gone is the swallow from your limpid eyes,

Gone is the silver from your clarion voice.”

“Ah, my Unicorn. Whether he grazed on mandrake or hellebore or only caught a chill

I very much fear my Unicorn is done for, he is so very, very ill.”

“Do not grieve, my dear, once he's dead and gone,

we shall buy a younger one.”

“Ah, my Unicorn, no younger one can take his place.

Besides they have grown too common place,

the Mayor's wife has one, so does the Doctor's wife.

Now that my Unicorn is gone I want a Gorgon.”

“A Gorgon! A Gorgon! Ha ha ha ha! Ha ha ha ha! God forbid!”

“Ah, you no longer love me. You must love another.

Ah me, that's clear: I must go back to mother.”

“Bon voyage, my dear.”

“Ah, abandoned and betrayed,

I shall take the veil and die a nun.”

“Why not an abess? I couldn't care less.”

“Think of our son who has done no wrong.”

“The little monster, take him along.”

“Ho ho ho ho ho ho ho OH!”

“No! No! Not that, I pray!

Calm yourself, my dear, I shall find a Gorgon, this very day.”

INTERLUDE IV (As the Count and the Countess appear at a picnic with a Gorgon, the Townsfolk stare at them in great surprise. Soon all the Unicorns in town are killed and every respectable couple is now seen promenading a Gorgon.)

EIGHTH MADRIGAL (Enter the Man in the Castle with the Manticore)

Do not caress the lonely Manticore.

Do not unless your hand is gloved.

Feeling betrayed, feeling unloved,

so lost he is in cabalistic dreams

he often bites the hand he really meant to kiss.

Do not caress the lonely Manticore.

Although he's almost blind and very, very shy

and says he loves mankind.

Do not caress the lonely Manticore.

His glist'ning back whenever tapped

will quickly raise its piercing quills

How often as if in jest inadvertently

he kills the people he loves best.

Afraid of love he hides in secret lairs

and feeds on herbs more bitter than the aloe.

Fleeing the envious, the curious and the shallow, he keeps under his pillow a parchment he thinks

contains Solomon's seal and will restore his sight.

And late at night he battles with the Sphinx.

NINTH MADRIGAL (The Townsfolk and the Man in the Castle)

“And who is that? Methuselah or Beelzebub?”

“This is the Manticore.”

“And what of the Gorgon, how is he these days?”

“He was so proud and pompous and loud

I quickly grew tired of his ways.

First I warned him and then I caged him. Fin'ly, he died.”

“He died?” “Of what?”

“Of murder.”

“Oh but the man must be out of his mind.

How ungrateful of him. How unkind.

to slaughter in a cage the gorgeous, gorgeous Gorgon,

the pride of his age.

Had he found something prettier at least, but this Manticore is a horrible beast.”

INTERLUDE V (The Countess secretly stabs her Gorgon)

TENTH MADRIGAL (The Count and the Countess)

“Why are you sad, my darling?

“Why are you sad, my darling?

“I like that, I like that! Are you drunk,

are you asleep, or just blind?”

“I must be all three,

for I dreamt you were charming and kind.”

“I dare say, with the exception of you,

the whole town is aware of my terrible plight.

My Gorgon is lost. My Gorgon, my Gorgon is hopelessly lost!”

“Hardly a reason to weep.

I can now get you a dozen at half his original cost.”

“How dare you suggest such a thing.

You have no intuition or sense, you are vulgar and dense.

I bow to your eloquence, but what have I said?”

“Do you expect me to keep and pamper and feed

a breed that is common and cheap?”

“I shall say no more.”

“Not even to offer me a Manticore?”

“A Manticore? That ghost, that golem, that ghoul in my house! Never, never, never, never, never, never, never!”

“You are a fool!” “I married you!”

“You are a mule.” “You are a shrew!”

“How dare you ..OH… I faint.”

“(Oh what a wife have I, Medusah she is and Xantippe,

still she must share my bed, I wish I were dead.)”

“Saying something?…” “Oh nothing.”

“May I then have my Manticore?” “Don't be a bore.”

“Oh why did I marry a count of no account, when I could have married a duke or a prince.”

“(Because they were clever and I was a fool.)”

“Saying something?” “Oh nothing!”

“I heard you.” (she slaps him)

“(Oh what a wife have I, Medusah she is and Xantippe.

“Oh what a wife have I, I wish she would die!)”

“Do you still refuse?”

“You are much too convincing and forceful and deft.”

“I knew we would finally see eye to eye.”

“Yes, the one eye I have left.”

INTERLUDE VI As the Count and the Countess appear with a Manticore, the Townsfolk stare at them in great surprise. Soon all the Gorgons in town are killed and every respectable couple is now seen promenading a Manticore.)


Have you noticed the Man in the Castle is seen no more

Walking on Sundays his Manticore.

I have a suspicion.

Do you suppose?

Do you?

The Manticore too?

We must form a committee to stop all these crimes.

We should arrest him, we should splice his tongue and triturate his bones.

He should be tortured with water and fire, with pulleys and stones

in molten lead, in the Iron Maiden.

He should be put on the rack, on the wheel, on the stake.

Let us all go to explore the inner courts of the Castle

and find out what he has done with the rare Manticore.



Slow, much too slow, is the judgment of God.

Quick is the thief.

Speedy architect of perfect labyrinths the sinner

But God's law works in time and time has one flaw: it is unfashionably slow.

We, the few, the elect, must take things in our hands.

We must judge those who live and condemn those who love.

All passion is uncivil. All candor is suspect.

We detest all except what by fashion is blest.

And for ever and ever, whether evil or good, we shall respect what seems clever.

(As they enter the castle the Townsfolk discover the Man in the Castle dying.)

TWELFTH MADRIGAL (The Man in the Castle on his death-bed, surrounded by the Unicorn, the Gorgon, and the Manticore.)

Oh foolish people who feign to feel

what other men have suffered.

You, not I, are the indifferent killers of the poet's dreams.

How could I destroy the pain wrought children of my fancy?

What would my life have been without their faithful and harmonious company?

Unicorn, Unicorn, my youthful, foolish Unicorn,

Please do not hide, come close to me.

And you, my Gorgon, behind whose splendor I hid the doubts of my midday, you too stand by,

And here is my shy and lonely Manticore who gracefully leads me to my grave.

Farewell, farewell.

Equally well I loved you all.

Although the world may not suspect it, all remains in tact within the Poet's heart.

Farewell, farewell.

Not even death I fear as in your arms I die.

Farewell, farewell.

GOTTLIEB: Used by arrangement with Boosey and Hawkes, Inc., Sole agent for Theophilus Music, publisher, Richard Engquist and Jack Gottlieb, copyright owners.

SCHAFER: Used by arrangement with Arcana Editions. Contact: R. Murray Schafer, Arcana Editions , R.R. 2, Indian River, Ontario, Canada K0L 2B0 (705) 652-0446

MENOTTI: Used by arrangement with European American Music Distributors LLC, sole U.S. and Canadian agent for Belwin Mills Publishing Corporation, publisher and copyright owner.

Carolina Chamber ChoRALE


Alison Chaney

Anne Denbow-Gilbert

Stephanie Gregory

Linda Lister

Barbara Loehr-Koch

Kristin McCommons

Katy Williams


April Hill

Mary Creswell

Karyn Friedman

Jennifer Luiken

Lynne McMurtry

Suzanne Stevens


Brad Creswell

Walter Cuttino

Gerald Gray

Keith Jones

John Keinath

Dillon Parmer


Dale Huffman

Dan Ihasz

David Klement

Gary Poster

James Ramsey

Matt Rippere

Todd Simmons




Helen Ihasz

Rebecca Karpoff

Kathleen Leiker

Barbara Loehr-Koch

Elizabeth Phillips


Kirstin Chavez

Victoria Maloley

Lynne McMurtry

Valerie Nicolosi

Suzanne Stevens


Christopher Huebner

Dillon Parmer

John Pierce

Trevor Smith


Thomas Hodgman

Dan Ihasz

Mark Morgan

James Ramsey

Sean Wallace


Ulla Suokko, flute

Jacqualine Burk, oboe

Russell Wheeler, clarinet

Erika Anderson, bassoon

Heather Mahone, trumpet

Rosie Elliott, cello

Michael Valerio, bass

Alice Trentham, harp

Julia Hillbrick, percussion

friends play Fisher Tull

1 Nonet for Winds, Percussion and Piano [12:51]

Chamber Ensemble Charlotte Tull, piano

Timothy Tull, conductor

2 Erato for Flute and Piano [5:40]

Ann Fairbanks, flute Charlotte Tull, piano

Sonata for Viola and Piano

3 Allegro [3:40]

4 Slowly, with freedom [4:49]

5 Allegro [2:15]

Lawrence Wheeler, viola Charlotte Tull, piano

Sarabande and Gigue for Saxophone and Piano

6 Andante [3:02]

7 Allegro [2:42]

Donald Theode, saxophone Charlotte Tull, piano

Trio Sonata for Violin, Clarinet and Piano

8 Prelude; slowly with freedom [2:50]

9 Fugue; allegro ritmato [2:22]

10 Interlude; rubato [2:05]

11 Scherzo [2:09]

James Gardner, violin Randall Luster, clarinet

Charlotte Tull, piano

12 Fantasy on L'homme armé for Oboe and Piano [5:36]

Spring Hill, oboe Charlotte Tull, piano

Sonata for Trumpet and Piano

13 Senza misura quasi recitative [2:41]

14 Allegro [3:36]

15 Andante [3:38]

16 Allegro giocoso [5:50]

Anthony Plog, trumpet Charlotte Tull, piano

TOTAL TIME, with pauses: 1:05:53

Recorded 9-10 January and 2 March 1999

in the Moores Opera House, University of Houston

Producer and recording engineer: John Gladney Proffitt